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Introduction to Amazonas Region Introduction to Andes Region Introduction to Caribbean Islands Region Introduction to Central & Cloud Forest Region Introduction to Los Llanos Region Introduction to Orinoco River - Delta Region Introduction to Gran Sabana Region


 

 VENEZUELA IN THE WORLD 

Venezuela is located in the American continent, to the north of America of the South. It is  the only South American country that possesses coasts open to the sea Caribbean and to the  ocean Atlantic, with an extension of costs that goes from Castilletes to the promontory of it  Gave birth to in the sea Caribbean. With the ocean Atlantic extends from the promontory of  it Gave birth to until the coast of the Guayana Esequiba. This position locates it in an axis 
of communications among different points of the continent, being connected to the big  commercial nets thanks to its equidistancia with the main centers of the western  hemisphere, so much of America of the North, as of Europe and África. Venezuela is, to  oneself time, a Caribbean, Atlantic, Andean and amazon country. 


The country has a surface of 916.445 km². These extensive territories are expressed in a compact continental surface whose maximum longitude is of 1.493 km in address this-west and of 1.271 km in address north-south, what contributes to facilitate the integration and internal cohesion. It has a wide coast line that reaches in the sea Caribbean the 2.813 kms of longitude from Castilletes to the promontory of it Gave birth to (sees you Peninsula of it Gave birth to); their form is irregular and it is constituted by numerous gulves and bays, among those that highlight the gulf of Venezuela and those of Sad and Cariaco, and more than 314 islands, keys and islands of Venezuelan sovereignty that extend for the north until the island of Ave and its corresponding area of marine economic exclusivity. In turn, it has 1.008 km of continental riversides in the ocean Atlantic, from the promontory of it Gave birth to tip Beach, including the gulf of it Gave birth to, the island of Ducks and the coast facade of the delta of the Orinoco and adjacent islands, where they highlight the drops wild, muddy cost and covered with swamps.

Venezuela, name of 
Appears for the first time, written Veneçuela, in the map that the Spanish cartographer Juan  of the Thing drew in 1500 when returning of the trip that, under the orders of Alonso of  Ojeda, he had carried out in 1499 along the costs of the current Republic of Venezuela. In  this map that name designates the area of the gulf of Venezuela, located among the 
peninsulas of Paraguaná and of the Peasant. Traditionally the paternity of that name has  been come attributing to the Italian navigator Américo Vespucio who also participated in  the exploration of Ojeda; however, it should be kept in mind that in its letter of The four  sailings, printed in Latin, by Martín Waldseemüller in 1507, Vespucci compares the 
populations indigenous palafíticas with Venice («…pagum aut villam super aquas, ut Venetiae…») but it doesn't use the word Venezuela neither the expression «small Venice». 
On the other hand, in a declaration given in 1512, Ojeda says that after the admiral  Christopher Columbus was him who traveled and he discovered the coast «…hasta the gulf  of the Pearls… and of there it was discovering that entire coast of the mainland from the  Friars until in even of the islands of the Giants and the gulf of Venice that is in the 
mainland and the county of Coquivacoa…» it is certain that the view of one or several  towns built natives on the water by means of platforms sustained by stakes (palafitos) he  suggested Ojeda, the Thing and Vespucci the comparison with Venice. However, the use of  the affective diminutive «Venezuela» (derived evidently of the name of the Italian city) it  must award with more property to Juan of the Thing who included it in their map, or to the 
boss of the expedition, Ojeda, without this excludes the possible participation of Vespucci. 
In 1528, in the capitulation in which emperor Carlos V gave the Welser the exploitation of  the lands that you/they are included between the End of the Candle and Maracapana, is  spoken of «…las lands of Venezuela and his Counties…» so that Ambrosio Alfínger  arrived to Choir in 1529 as the first governor from Venezuela. The name of Venezuela had  papal consecration in a bull of Clemente VII of June 21 1531 in which believes the  Bishopric of Choir. During the XVI and XVII centuries it is used Government of  Venezuela or county of Venezuela indistinctly to refer to the territory of variable limits that  was adjacent with the county from New Andalusia to the east and it reached for the occident until the End of The Candle 

TERRITORY AND RESOURCES

In the Venezuelan territory they combine the imposing reliefs of the mountain range of you Walk them, the mountain range of the Costa and the solid one Guianese, with the formations of half altitude of the system Coriano and the depressions of the states of Yaracuy and Lara, where the cities of Barquisimeto and Carora are; also, the topography of the low lands of the basin of the lake of Maracaibo is also recognized, of The Plains, in the system of the delta of the Orinoco, and of the plain of the river Casiquiare in the Venezuelan Amazons.

In the occident of the country they are the mountainous lands of you Walk them Venezuelans that are divided in the mountain range of Perijá, with their maximum altitude in the pick Tutari (3.750 m) located in the mountain of the Motilones, and in the mountain range of Merida, where the highest point in the country, the pick Bolivar is located (5.007 m) in the mountain Nevada of Merida. In the north is distinguished other important mountainous group, the mountain range of the Costa, divided in serranía of the Central Coast whose maximum altitude constitutes it the pick Naiguatá (2.765 m), and serranía of the Interior, with its maximum altitude in the pick Turimiquire (2.596 m) in the east of the same one (sees you Sierra of Brig). Near to the coast of the sea Caribbean the low lands of the depression of Maracaibo are located, where is the lake of Maracaibo, an extension toward the interior of the gulf of Venezuela.

They have singular importance the formations of low lands of The Plains, where is distinguished between The high Plains and The low Plains, separated by the curve of level of the 100 meters. The high Plains are not susceptible of flood and they present waves originated by the fluvial erosion; they reach their maximum altitudes in the llanero-Andean piedemonte, where floors of great fertility are recognized. The low Plains are conformed by alluvial plains that are flooded in the rainy season, converging their net hidrográfica with the system of the river Orinoco; their vegetation is of tropical pastizales of savanna.

The formations of the shield or solid Guianese are separated from the rest of the country for the wide arch of the river Orinoco and they are prolonged for the Venezuelan Amazonia in the imposing mountains of Parima and Pacaraima, with numerous tepuy (it names local that mentions to plateaus tabulares) located next to the frontier with Brazil. In their northeastern end they highlight the deltaic low lands of the Orinoco. In turn, between the riversides of the Orinoco and the 6° latitude N, the Guianese landscape is manifested in plains with altitudes that oscillate between the 200 and the 500 m, dominating the climate llanero and the savanna formations. To the south of this parallel one big tepuys prevails, among those that the Auyan Tepuy highlights (2.450 m) that harbors the Jump Ángel, in the river Churún, flowing of the Carrao, a spectacular cascade of 979 m, the highest in the world. Here they dominate the wild formations.

Location 
North of America of the South. 

Limits 
North: Territorial seas of Republic Of the Dominican Republic, The Antilles, Puerto Rico  and Virgin Islands, Martinique, Guadalupe, and Trinidad and Tobago.  South: Brazil and Colombia. This: Ocean Atlantic and Guyana. 
West: Colombia. 

Coordinated 
North latitude: Among the parallel ones 0°38´53´´, in the birth of the river Arari (state  Amazons) and the 12°11´46´´ in the end of San Román (state Falcon), more northern point  of the continental part of the country. The Island of Ave is a key factor in the extension of  the limits of territorial waters. 

Latitude west: Among the meridians 58°10´00´´, point located in the oriental end of the  river Esequibo, in the Guayana Esequiba (Area in reclamation) and the 73°25´00´´, in the  birth of the Intermediate river (state Zulia). Their insular territories extend northernly to  Island from Ave to 15°40´33´´. 

Surface 
916 667 km2. 

Extension of coasts 
4 006 km. 

Total population 
22 105 265 inhabitants  
The current Venezuelan population is product of a strong miscegenation begun in the times of the colony between the indigenous population and the Spaniard; later on, at the end of the XVI century, an important contribution of population slave coming from the African continent was observed. With the step of the time increased the miscegenation process characterized by the free union", accepted as institution in the country. At the end of the decade of 1940, with the beginning of the industrialization process, an important immigration of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese origin began that was increasing up to 1958. In the decade of 1970 took place this same process but played by citizens of South American origin, due to the development of the Venezuelan economy and to the deterioration and economic recession of their origin countries. At the present time all these migrations have given origin to a population totally integrated to each other, where any type of conflict interracial doesn't exist.

The population from Venezuela (according to estimates for 2002) it belonged to 24.287.670 inhabitants, with a density of 27 hab/km². however, the distribution is not balanced: more than the population's 80% groups in the coasts, valleys and piedemontes of the mountain range of the Costa and the one of you Walk them, being created this way big populational holes to the south of the fluvial axis Orinoco-hurries. It is necessary to point out that more than the population's 40% it is seated in the eight more important urban complexes of the country. In the south of Venezuela and partly of the region zuliana most of the indigenous population is located that grieve it reaches 1,5% of the national total. The population's 13% lives in rural areas.

Administrative divisions Division territorial politician 

Venezuela is structured in 23 states, the Capital District, seat of the city of Caracas, and 74 islands in the sea Caribbean that you/they constitute the Federal Dependences. In January of 1980 they were defined for ordinance the administrative regions integrated by one or several states. These are the nine regions removed by the states that integrate them. Capital region: Capital district and states Vargas and Miranda. Central region: states Aragua, Carabobo and Cojedes. Insular region: New state Esparta and Federal Dependences. Northeastern region: states Anzoátegui, Monagas and Sucre. Region Guayana: states Bolivar, Amazons and Delta Amacuro. Region Western Center: states Falcon, Lara, Portuguese and Yaracuy. Region Zuliana: Zulia. Region of you Walk them: states Barinas, Merida, Táchira, Trujillo and municipality of Páez of the state Hurries; and Region of The Plains: states Guárico and Hurry. The states are conformed by autonomous municipalities that constitute the unit primigenia of the territorial political administration.

CAPITAL CITIES

Caracas
The amazing Venezuelan capital, a collage of "trees", feeways and high tech buildings, offers to the tourist
its history as another tourism attrac-tion which is added to the many which Venezuela has. The temperature stays between 15º in December and 28º in Au-gust. Moderns Caracas can be divided into various sectors. The downtown area is the city's historical and nerve center.

Begining the bridge that takes you to Plaza Venezuela, a ver-satile, provocative city unfolds before yours eyes. Arts galle-ries, office buildings, adversiting agencies and bussinesses of all sizes line the principal avenues.

The Metro de Cracas, whic covers most of the city, is the prefered transportation of Caraqueños. Among the sites of historical interest which exist in Caracas, some are still: Panteón Nacional, Escuela Superior de Música José Angel Lamas, santa Capilla, Plaza Bolívar, Casa Amarilla, Catedral de Caracas, Museo Sacro and the Casa Natal del Libertador Simón Bolívar.

Maracaibo
Best known as the capital of Zulia, the state that pumps most of Venezuela's oil wealth, Maracaibo's tourist attractions tend to be overlooked. Nevertheless, its warm-hearted, hospitable people take
pride in showing visitors their vibrant, colorful city. Both colonial and modern, Maracaibo offers the the latest in luxury hotels and shopping malls side by side with the old-time charm and culinary skills of traditional neighborhoods and restau-rants. No need to stay in town, either - visitors can enjoy excur-sions
to enchanting Sinamaica Lagoon, San Carlos Island and the natural lightning bolts on the Catatumbo River that have to be seen to be believed. Old town Maracaibo gives the sightseer a
chance to stroll back to the beginning of the century and savor the lifestyle and customs of a bygone Venezuela.

The homes, streets and shops belong to yester year around any corner is a time-honored
saloon, a turn-of-the-century house serving typical food and sweets of the region, even a barber shop for men only.
Maracaibo is also a modern, multifaceted powerhouse that is not quaint at all, with de-luxe
hotels, gourmet cuisine, frenetic night life and shoppíng malls with all the major brands. Its boast Venezuela's
first Palace of Events built to international standards for conferences, seminars and exhibitions, one more example of the city's leading role in the life of the na-tion.
Those born to shop can happily spend whole days doing Maracaibos first-rate malls with their sophisticated
shops and food fairs. Not to be missed are the Galeria, Costa Verde, La Chinita and the newest and trendiest,
Lagomall.

Barquisimeto
A tour through its colonial past reveals pre-cious archaeological finds of long-gone civi-lizations.
Cheerful and brimming with cultural life, Barquisimeto also offers good buys for the living room with its craftmanship and music. And it is a grat eating place too: Lara State is the home of the famous Caro-ran
goat and beef dishes. El Tocuyo hig-way- just before the Carore exit-one finds Tintorero, known for its woven hammocks, tapestries and covers. Further South lies Sa-nare, a farming center with many touristics stops and an ideal place for buying fresh vegetables. Close by its fumaroles, the Yacambú dam is also located here. Eit-her
directly from Quíbor or taking a detour at Sanare, the next stop is El Tocuyo. Carora is near, the most importan feature in this cultural and cattle ranching center is its colonial zone.

Cuidad Bolívar
With its picturesque location on a rocky elevation on the southern banks of the Orinoco River, Ciudad Bolívar, the capital of Venezue-la's largest state. The beginnings of Ciudad Bolívar date from the 16th century. The heart of Ciudad Bolívar still largely conserves the look of the past.

Appreciate the many interesting architectural details and unique geographically influenced construction, check out
the shops, visit museums and historic structures -all within easy walking distance of the Mirador. On the south side of Paseo Orinoco, note the unique vintage commercial buil-dings with deep enclosed upper balconies, supported by
tall columns and forming a protective roof over the side-walk which provides welcome shade for pedestrians (sin-ce
average temperature is 28º C). In the Plaza Bolívar, de-clared a national monument and focal point of historical
events in this city, along with the customary statue of Simón Bolívar are five allegorical figures representing each
of the countries he liberated from Spanish rule: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolívar, Colombia, and Peru.
Some 10 blocks south of the plaza is Fortín Zamuro. Nearby, facing Plaza Miranda is the Centro de las Artes.
Erected in 1870, in its "former life" it served variously as a hospital, military barracks, jail, prefecture, and even the
capitol building. It now holds changing expositions as well as offices of the sta-te's cultural Department. On a more contemporary note, not to be missed is the Museo de Arte Moderno Jesús Soto. The first stage was designed by the legendary Venezuelan ar-chitect, Carlos Raúl Villanueva, and Edgar Parra responsible for the second part. The focus of the complex's galleries is works of Jesús Soto, world-famous for his kinetic art. He was born in this city.
In addition to Soto's creations, there are excellent representations of the most important of his contemporaries working with the same concepts. They also host changing shows of artists with distinct styles.

Valencia
Valencia is the capital of an important Venezuelan State located at the northern side of Venezuela, Carabo-bo,
where took place the Batalla de Carabobo, which sealed the Independence of Venezuela. And to honor this historic event was created El ParqueCampo de Carabobo in the same place where the battle took place. This park is located 18 km away from Valencia and houses an important monument called Batalla de Carabobo con su Arco de
Triunfo and created by the Spanish sculptor Antonio Rodríguez Villar. The park also houses a viewpoint
from where it is possible to admire the plains where the battle took place and has a Centro de Interés Tu-rístico
(Tourist office) offering tourist services.

Carabobo also houses other interesting parks such as Metropolitano de Valencia, which is perfect to relax and rest; Recreacional del Sur, where all kind of expositions take place; Turístico Guataparo, which is lo-cated
at the shores of Guataparo Lake and offers cabins, wonderful gardens and motor boat services; Cristóbal
Mendoza, which stands out because of its sparkling fountains and its sun-dial.Valencia's lake is the second in ex-tension in Venezuela and houses several islands such as Tacarigua, Chambergo, Otamo,
El Horno, and El Fraile. And Carabobo's spas and beaches are also very popular among tourists.
Palma Sola and Playa Blanca are located in Puerto Cabello. The former is a vast beach offering tourists
all the services they need to have a comfortable stay and to practice water sports. The second is a public
beach offering restaurants and motor boats. Quizandal, a vast public beach, is located very near to the aforementioned beaches. And not so far is Guaicamacuto, perfect to enjoy of a sunny day, and Gañango, where it is possible to take motor boats. And Canaima, located in the road Palito-Morón, houses places offering accommodation, food, locker rooms, and motor boat services.


Official currency 
The bolivar. 

Official language 
Castellano. 27 indigenous groups that you/they speak their own language exist. 

Religion 
Cult freedom (the Catholic religion prevails). 

Government's system 
Representative democracy. The country has been developed as a centralized State whose  government is exercised from the capital of the Republic, where they concentrate the public  powers (Executive, Legislative and Judicial). For his operation it is a democratic and social  State of right. The states that conform it have as first authority a governor. The municipal  administration is represented by its maximum authority, the mayors who jointly with the 
governors and the representatives of the Assemblies legislativas are chosen, the same as the  president of the Republic, for universal, direct and secret voting. In the Federal District the governor is of free appointment on the part of the president. The federal Dependences are  subordinate to the National Executive. 

Economy 
It rotates around the external trade, which is largely carried out through marine transport. The development of the economy has been sustained in the activity productive oil company, what characterizes it like capitalism financier's economy. It possesses  considerable oil, gas, carboniferous locations and an enormous hydroelectric potential that 
it allows him to have full energy independence. It has mineral resources of great economic  and strategic value as gold, iron and aluminum; besides enough reservations of water and floors of agricultural and forest vocation. Other important industries are: construction  materials, textile, brewery, prosecution of foods, autopartes, telecommunications, massive consumption, consultancy and consultantship, television production, chemical, fármacos, publicity and editorial. Their scenarios paisajísticos of tourist projections and the existence 
of other non conventional resources that are undeveloped or sub-exploited, transform it into a privileged region. 

Economy

The Venezuelan economy is based mainly on the exploitation of the petroleum and its derived. In the last decades it spreads to be diversified with exports of iron mineral, aluminum, coal and cement, and non traditional products as petrochemical matters, metallic factories of steel and others. Until beginnings of the decade of 1980, Venezuela enjoyed a discharge it produces oil company of external origin that allowed to the State to constantly elevate its expense without increasing the internal tribute (sees you Tribute), enjoying the population of a high level of life with a notable improves of the services of public health and education.

Venezuela achieved an internal industrialization that substituted many imports, the construction of an important infrastructure viaria, of irrigable and hydroelectricity, and the formation of big public companies. Ulteriorly a sustained fall of the oil entrance took place, which decreased to a third in 1993, accompanied with high payments of the external public debt and one sustained financial pressure by the exit of international monetary resources that culminated in 1994 with a serious crisis bank, high levels of corruption and a descent in the quality of life. In this time a new economic politics was implanted with the unification and exchange flotation, the liberalization of the internal prices and of the interest rates, the beginning of the privatization of public companies and the renegotation of the foreign debt. In this mark began, in 1996, an economic change in which the privatization of deficit public companies, the stimulus to the foreign investment was accentuated in several industries, as the oil company, petrochemical, mining of the gold, diamond, coal, nickel, forest exploitation, tourism and other sectors. It was expressed it, also, with the freedom of prices and of acquisition of foreign currencies, and with changes in the régime of Social Security. In 2000 the gross interior product (GDP) it was of 120.484 million dollars, giving an entrance per cápita of 4.980 dollars.

Agriculture

The Venezuelan government approved a Law of Agrarian Reformation in 1960, guided to expand and to diversify the agricultural production that has also been stimulated with the increase from the surface regable to 310.972 there are in 1994. In 1997 the agricultural activities occupied to 11% of the active population of the country and they contributed with 5% of the annual GDP. The cultivated surface ascended in 1999 to 3.490.000 hectares. The varied resources agrarian Venezuelans are expressed in diverse productive systems that cover from the agriculture of subsistence and semicomercial, developed in traditional conucos (vegetable gardens) and in small properties where products are cultivated for the domestic consumption (caraotas, beans, yucca and tropical roots), until plantations of diverse types, as the old ones (today been modernized in their biggest part) dedicated to the cultivation of coffee, cocoa, cane of sugar and other commercial products. In these last decades they have multiplied the systems of automated and modern annual cultivations, as the specialized ones in corn, rice, sorghum, ajonjolí, peanut (peanut), sunflower and cotton, thanks to the irrigation, the fertilization and the control of plagues that have transformed the agrarian geographical landscapes of the table of Guanipa (state of Anzoátegui) and important extensions of The central and western Plains. It highlights the recent introduction of the innovative systems of fruticultura, viticultura, horticulture and commercial floricultura in the Andean states and of Zulia, Falcon, Lara, Guárico and Aragua, among others.

It has been come securing an important production tropical cerealista, of corn, rice and sorghum that in 2001 1.200.000 t reached in the case of the corn and 690.000 t in that of the rice, sustained fundamentally by the exploitations of The Plains. Regarding the production of textile and oleaginous (these last ones with a volume of 120.495 t in 2001), they highlight the coconuts, the palm oil, cotton in branch, sisal (sees you Agave), the sunflower and the ajonjolí. Among the leguminous ones it highlights the caraotas production and beans. It is fundamental the production of roots and tubers, with 1.093.046 t in 2001 composed by 570.564 t of yucca (manioc), 341.662 t of potato (potato), ocumo and yam. The most important commercial cultivations are the coffee (69.000 tons), the cane of sugar (8.110.000 t), the cocoa (18.865 t), and the tobacco (11.288 t). Among the productions frutícolas they highlight the banana tree or cambur, the banana, the orange, the pineapple and the mango.

Appreciable advances are verified in the mobilization of cattle resources with improvements in the yields of diverse cattle raising types. In 2001 the cattle cabin of Venezuela had 15.800.000 heads of bovine livestock, 4.900.000 of swinish, 781.000 of ovino and 110.000.000 of corral birds. The landscapes created by the modernized cattle exploitations are observed in the low lands of the Southwest of the basin of the lake of Maracaibo, in Perijá, Bobures, Monay, Low Motatán, Carora, south of the state of Falcon and in The Plains, where has settled down a prosperous area of intensive production of meat and milk.

Forestry and fishes

Although the forests and forests cover great part of Venezuela, the timber industry has only had a moderate development due to the inaccessibility to the natural forest areas. From 1973 until the present time have been carried out massive plantations of pine caribe (sees you Pináceas), with commercial ends, to the south of the states of Monagas and Anzoátegui, next to the riversides of the Orinoco. The wood is used for the industries of the construction and for the elaboration of furniture and paper. In 2000 2.713.000 wooden m³ was obtained.

The extensive fishing resources of Venezuela are compound for a wide variety of marine life. The most important commercial capture is that of the shrimp, continued by the tuna, the sardine, the cazón (sees you Shark), the pargo, the grouper and the squid. The maricultura of shrimps has been introduced in the Caribbean coast, the upbringing of trouts in piscifactorías of Merida and Táchira, and the fluvial acuicultura in The Plains, Zulia and Guayana. In 1997 the fishing production was of 502.728 t; the marine captures supposed 373.562 t, highlighting the productions of Sucre, New Esparta and Falcon.

Petroleum and mining

The petroleum is the base of the Venezuelan economy, generating in 1994 73,3% of the revenues for export. Options of great magnitude are recognized in all the types of raw petroleum, what explains that in 1999 1.100.498.300 barrels were extracted, being exported most to United States, Europe and other countries of Latin America. This great oil production is extracted for the most part of the basin of the lake of Maracaibo and of the basins it Barinas-hurries and Oriental. The Venezuelan government nationalized the oil industry in 1976 that was in hands of Venezuela CORP.'S company Petroleums (PDVSA) whose filial companies operate in six refineries of the country of diverse magnitude and they have a capacity of refined of petroleum of 1.265.000 daily barrels, besides other nine abroad (in Curaçao, United States, Germany, Sweden and Belgium) that process 1.860.000 additional daily barrels. You prevé a great future in this sector, since there are reservations estimated in 75.000 million barrels of petroleum, being included the conventional reservations, like part so much of those of the oil strip of the Orinoco, estimated in around 250.000 million recoverable barrels, where they have already begun to be mobilized by the orimulsión process, bitúmenes emulsion (polish) and it dilutes, mainly for the use of generating plants of energy. The country is one of the main world producers of natural gas, 30.865 million m³ in 1999 (sees you gassy Fuel); the production was of natural gas, liquefied gas, butane and propane. Venezuela is a member founder of the Organization of Countries Exporters of Petroleum (OPEC).

Other minerals exploited with commercial ends are iron (11.100.000 t), bauxite (4.200.000 t), coal (7.547.777 t), I pray (7.332 kg), salt, phosphates (375.000 t) and calcareous. They were discovered near the river Orinoco in the decade of 1940 extensive deposits of iron mineral in the call belt ferrífero of Imataca; it was exploited by American companies until their nationalization in 1975 and starting from this date position of their exploitation the state company Ferrominera of the Orinoco was made, subsidiary of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana that extracted in 1994 a production of 18.309.000 t of iron of Cerro Bolivar's Guianese locations, Hill San Isidro and Hill The Ravines, of which 11.150.000 t was exported Europe, Asia and United States.

The extraction of the minerals of bauxite of The Pijiguaos operates from 1987, with a production in 1994 of 2.530.000 t. The iron is processed in Ciudad Guayana, in the facilities of the Steel plant of the Orinoco, with an annual production of 2.682.277 t of steel, while the bauxite is transformed in the same city by Interalúmina, subsidiary company of the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana that satisfies the demand of the companies aluminum producers. The exploitation of the carboniferous locations of Guasare in the state of Zulia, Carbosuroeste in Táchira and Fila Maestra and Naricual in Anzoátegui has reached the production of 4.434.000 t of coal in 1994. There is abundance of minerals of gold (especially in the states of Bolivar and Amazons) as much in veins as in alluviums, representing their potential approximately 12% of the well-known world reservations. The production of gold in 1994 ascended to 9.944 kg and the one of diamond to 314.000 karats. Venezuela is also an important producing of limestone and dolomita, with 15.972.083 annual t that provide the matter it prevails to a pay period of cement factories. Other exploitations of great interest are the locations of phosphates of Táchira that you began to explode in 1994 with an annual production of 57.337 t, those of manganese in Guayana and those of nickel in Aragua.

Industry

From principles of the decade of 1960 the government has given great priority to the development of the economic sector of the industry manufacturer. The main industrial products are derived of the petroleum, steel, aluminum, fertilizers, cement, tires, motor vehicles, processed foods, drinks, textile, clothes, footwear and articles of plastic and wood. In 1997 the active population in the industrial sector was of 24%. The industry concentrates on the cities of the Capital region and of the Central region. In the last decades of the XX century leaves securing the localization of industries of diverse type in the regions Western Center, Zulia, Walk and Guayana, highlighting the importance of the industry weighed in Ciudad Guayana.

Energy

Around 67,84% of the electricity takes place in hydroelectric facilities with power stations summoned in the state Bolivar, where the company state Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana/Electrificación of the Caroní (EDELCA) it has developed the megaproyecto of the hydroelectric power station Raúl Leoni (installed capacity of 10.000 MW), Macagua I (installed capacity of 370 MW) and, from January of 1997, the central Macagua II (2.540 MW). Also has importance, in the region of you Walk them, the company state Anonymous Company of Administration and Electric Development (CADAFE) that it has put into operation Sacred Domingo's hydroelectric power station and it has enabled the hydroelectric complex Uribante-Caparo, in their first stage, in the power station San Agatón. In 1999 81.215 million KWh of electricity were generated.

Currency and banking

The monetary unit of Venezuela is the bolivar of 100 cents (679,96 bolivars were equal to 1 American dollar in 2000). The Central Bank of Venezuela, been founded in 1939, is the government's bank dependence, the only issuing bank of the currency and the exchange center for the commercial banks. The main stock exchange of the country (sees you stock market) it is located in Caracas.

Trade external

The main exports of Venezuela are the petroleum and those derived of the petroleum that together they represented in 1994 more than 73,3% of the external trade, although in previous years they meant more than 80%. In the year 1998 783.059.480 barrels were exported. Other outstanding exports are iron, steel, aluminum, coal, gold, petrochemical products and basic industries. In 2000 the total of the annual exports rose to 31.802 million dollars. The main imports are machinery, teams of transport, chemical products, alimentary products and manufactured goods. In 2000 the cost of the imports was of 16.298 million dollars. See you international Trade.

Their main commercial partners are: United States, Colombia, United Kingdom, Antillas Neerlandesas, Japan, Mexico, Italy, Germany, Brazil, Canada, France and Spain. The trade has increased with the countries members of the following organizations: the Andean Group (sees you Andean Community), the Community of the Caribbean (CARICOM), the Central American Common Market (MCCA) and Mercosur (Market Common of the South).

Transport

Venezuela had in 1999 96.155 km of highways, of which 34% was paved. The density of freeways is high in the area center-north, in the Capital District and in the states of Vargas, Miranda, Aragua and Carabobo; these are prolonged in an extensive system of freeways toward the interior of the country, connecting the biggest urban centers with the most distant rural areas. The country only has not 396 km of railroads in tracts connected to each other, mainly a line of Puerto Cabello to Barquisimeto and the tract Yaritagua-Acarigua. has been projected a new railroad net for the year 2000. The most important marine ports are Puerto Cabello, Maracaibo, The Guaira, Guanta, Puerto Sucre (Cumaná), Guaranao and The Guamache. It is important the transport for waters interiors, particularly in the system of the axis Hurry-Orinoco. Several airlines exist, among those that Avensa, Airmail, Wings of Venezuela highlights (privatized) and other small companies. The company air International Venezuelan of Aviation (VIASA) stopped to exist in 1997, and it was substituted by a new call AVENSA. In 1996, the air transport was used by 5.498.000 passengers in regular flights going to a thirty of airports, among those that highlight several international as those of Maiquetía, Porlamar, Maracaibo, Barcelona, Barquisimeto, Sacred Domingo of the Táchira and San Antonio of the Táchira.

Communications

In 2000 Venezuela it had 108 telephone apparatuses for each 1.000 inhabitants (sees you Telephone). 373 stations or radio radio stations Existed, belonging most to chains of national environment. It has been extremely sustained and quick the advance of television, of which several state and private channels that are seen work in more than 80% of the Venezuelan homes. 86 daily newspapers are published, among them those of more circulation, are The Universal one, The National one, The World, The Globe and last News, all published in Caracas, as well as other newspapers published in the capitals of the states.

Work

In 2000 the active population from Venezuela was considered in 9.880.696 people. Approximately 11% of the same one was used in the agriculture, 65% in the trade and in activities of services and the rest, 24%, in the oil and mining exploitation, in industries manufacturers and bound activities to the construction, the electricity and the transport. The work organized in Venezuela is formed by unions, associations and rural suspenders. The most important organization is the Confederation of Workers from Venezuela (CTV), with near 1,5 millions of affiliated. See you Unions (Spain and Latin America).

Climate

An astonishing climatic variety exists (27 areas), defined by the plains with plane reliefs to  wavy, the upper-class Andean mountains of perpetual snow and the Guianese plateaus. The heights on the level of the sea oscillate between 0 and 100 meters, generally in the coastal  areas and the plain of the Orinoco, until the highest summit, corresponding to the pick  Bolivar in the Andean mountain range with 5 007 meters on the level of the sea. The 
temperature varies from less 0 °C in this geographical area, until more than 26 °C in almost the whole country. The precipitations are scarce in some areas with annual, or very abundant 300-600 mm with more than 3 000 mm/año in the south of the territory. They are distinguished only two stations: a rainy one (of seven months) and another dry one (of five months). 

The territorial diversity of Venezuela is reflected in a variety of climates, which associate directly to the existent landscapes. In the Caribbean Venezuelan coast, in the islands and in the depressions of Lara a semi-arid climate prevails with dry vegetation, annual precipitations of 600 mm and annual temperatures of 24 ºC of average. In the mountain range of the Costa, mountain range of you Walk them, fence intramontanos and serranías, the climate varies from the tropical of height, starting from the 900 m of altitude, until the cold climates of mountain above the 3.500 meters; great number of human establishments of the country has settled down in these mountainous areas, with annual precipitations among the 850 and the 900 mm, and temperatures that oscillate between 18 and 22 °C of average. In the low lands of The Plains it dominates the rainy tropical climate with a very marked dry station; in the rainy station precipitations are given yearly between the 1.200 and annual 1.600 mm and a temperature of 28 °C of average. In the delta of the Orinoco a rainy tropical climate is developed and of marine influence, what favors the development of a dense vegetation. In the south of Venezuela the pluviosidad increases, with annual precipitations that overcome the 4.000 mm, with 10 and 11 rainy months to the year and temperatures that the 28 °C of average overcomes, settling down this way always a good condition for the development of dense wild vegetable formations humid (pluvisilva).

Geography 

Central mountain range Of tectonic origin, it includes the serranía of the Coast (mountain range of the Costa) that 
has their biggest altitude in the pick Naiguatá with 2 765 m and that of the Interior that  harbors to the pick Turimiquire with 2 595 m. The formation of these processes gave origin to depressions of great magnitude: the basin of the lake of Valencia and the valleys of the Tuy, Caracas, Aragua and Windward. Hillsides of variable inclination, sedimentary valleys, channels of rivers and gulches, sharp costs with cliffs and beaches with waters of low to 
medium depth, as well as high mountains, conform this area. The high Plains are to the south. The piedemonte, transition sector that connects the south flank of the serranía of the Interior with the central high Plains, is furrowed by numerous geologic flaws. 

Oriental mountain range 
The phenomenon that gave origin to the basin of Cariaco separated to the mountain range Caribbean of the north of Venezuela, for that reason is defined the Central system and the Oriental. The peninsulas of Araya to the west and it Gave birth to the east, they are united by an itsmo with more than 80 km of width and they are skirted to the south by the gulves of Cariaco and it Gave birth to. The serranía, in which highlights the solid of Turimiquire, 
(2 600 m) and other mountains that the 1 500 m doesn't overcome are continuation of the serranía of the Interior of the Central mountain range, which finishes in Caripe, where is the most famous formation cárstica: the Cave of the Guácharo. Sea inside the multitude of islands highlights. In the coastal tract that gives to the west of the peninsula of Araya the salines of the same name they are located. 

System coriano 
The relief is not very high, with altitudes between 500 and 1 700 m. The biggest territorial extension is the mountainous system Falcon-Lara and the piedemonte Falcon-Zulia. The first one has to the west the mountain of Siruma that serves from limit to the basin of the lake of Maracaibo. To the foot of the serranía Baragua the depression of Carora is and in the southern slopes of the serranías Matatere and Bobare the depression of Barquisimeto is 
had. The coastal portions understand the plains of the north coast that it includes the peninsula of Paraguaná. Here is the itsmo of The Dunes, the only desert of the country, formed by a narrow fringe of dunes and a beach to leeward, on the golfete of Choir. Be also had the salines of The Cumaraguas and Bajarigua. 

Lake of Maracaibo 
The lake of Maracaibo, a bay with very narrow entrance, is the most extensive in suramérica. It possesses a variety of landscapes: to the west plane, wavy lands and accident victims prevail. In the western end a landscape exists with abrupt and mountainous wavy and other relief in the serranía of Perijá. To the south they are the plains of alluvial deposits on the depression caused by the rising Andean orográfico with very plane topography, 
explayamiento plains, deposition pale and muddy areas. The convergence climatic cause the Lightning of the Catatumbo that is observed in the nights to the Southwest of the lake. San Carlos' islands, Toas and it Undermined they close the strait of Maracaibo. 

Walk them 
It is a continuation of you Walk them Colombian that when arriving to the Knot of Pamplona (Colombia) forks in two chains: The mountain of Perijá and the mountain range of Merida or of you Walk them Venezuelans. The separation between the Colombian Oriental mountain range and that of Merida is demarcated by the depression of the Táchira. 
A long tectonic fissure divides to you Walk them in two parallel blocks: the mountain of the North or of The Breech and the mountain of Merida. In this last one they are the most important heights in the country: the pick Bolivar (5 007 m) and the Humboldt (4 940 m). 
The fluvial excavations and the filling of the depressions caused deyección cones, fluvial valleys and alluvial terraces. In the high mountains they meet the valleys of glacial origin with imposing lagoons. 

The plains 
More than the fourth part of the Venezuelan territory it is included in the denomination of " Plain ". it is immense surfaces of almost plane relief that extend uninterruptedly. Their heights oscillate between 200 and 500 meters on the level of the sea. The dominant element is the savannas that present a great variety of types that you/they go from the thin and open, until the arbustivas and hoisted, going by the inundables with gramineous resistant to those 
conditions, where they highlight: tidelands, palms and undergrowth llaneras. Along the courses of water the gallery forests grow. A subdivision would recognize the western Plains, the central Plains, the oriental Plains and the depression of the Unare. 

Deltaic system 
The delta of the Orinoco is almost only in the world for three reasons: the bed of the Orinoco doesn't go centered, it lacks lagoons and it is an oceanic delta. It is divided in two deltas: the general, located from the left riverbank of the pipe Araguao, in northwest address, until the pipe Mánamo with north direction until the respective outlets in Boca 
Araguao and Flints. And the secondary one, located among the right riverbank of the pipe Araguao and the left of the Big River, main bed of the Orinoco in the delta. The dominant landscapes are muddy plains, so much marine as fluvial, with slopes that scarcely arrive to 2%, except in the southeast of the region, where the relief is waved or broken and the slopes can arrive to 25%. 

South of the Orinoco 
The Guianese shield is constituted by one of the oldest geologic formations in the world. Here they are the mountain range of Imataca and the serranía of the same name, the plateau of Nuria and the area of Paragua; the valley of the river Cuyuní, where the savannas of Guayana, and the mountainous areas extend as The Callao. The savannas of the Caroní are toward the occident and of the Paragua and the valleys of the High Caura and of the 
Erebato. Toward the south is the mountain of Pacaraima whose better known portion is the Great Savanna, a high plain to more than 1 000 m on the valley of the river Cuyuní. In this area they are the tepuyes. The better known one is the Auyán-tepui of whose summit comes off the jump Churún - Merú or Jump Ángel, with 972 m. 

The islands 
The insular arch embraces a total of 311 islands that you/they form a parallel line to the coast. Most is located between 150 and 200 km to the mainland north, others as those of Puerto  La Cruz is to only 2 or 3 km, while the most distant, the Island of Ave, is to 500 km to the north of the coast. Their floors were formed starting from igneous-metamorphic, very old rocks and erosionadas that appear until the surface: The Monks, The Asleep ones, The Orchila, The Blanquilla, The Siblings, The Friars and The Witness. There are other islands, 
as the archipelago of The Ave and partially The Orchila and The Blanquilla where the rocky basement is completely covered for a thick calcareous layer, fruit of the growth and the erosion of old coralline reefs. 

Rivers and lakes

Venezuela has an enormous quantity of resources hídricos. They have a special importance the fluvial waters, of those that 74,5% belongs to the slope of the ocean Atlantic and 20,7% to that of the sea Caribbean; 4,5 remaining% pours its waters to the system of the river Amazons for the Guainía-black and other rivers, excepting a minimum that drena to the basin endorreica of the lake of Valencia.

The sea Caribbean receives the waters of the rivers that in turn pour in the basin of the lake of Maracaibo, where they highlight the proportionate ones for the Chama, the Motatán, the Escalante, the Catatumbo, the Apón, the Lemon and the smallest contributions of several basins that go directly to this sea, among them those corresponding to the rivers Tocuyo, Aroa, Neverí and Orchards.

The slope of the ocean Atlantic receives the waters of the San Juan's basins and of the Cuyuní, besides the extraordinary contribution of the river Orinoco that receives in its 2.560 kms of longitude direct or indirectly the waters of numerous and important rivers, as the Padamo, the Ventuari, the Sipapo, the Cuchivero, the Caura, the Hoop, the Caroní, the Goal, the Arauca, the one Hurries, with its numerous ones tributary, and many others. The presence of the river Orinoco is fundamental in the Venezuelan geography, as much for its extension as for the quality and quantity of its waters, accompanied by great variety of natural resources in its basin that covers some 643.481 km2 of Venezuelan territory.

It is important the sailing in the lake of Maracaibo through the channel natural homonym, useful for the mobilization of the oil resources. In spite of not being good the conditions of navigability of great number of rivers, there is in the country 5.400 km of navigable waterways. Of this total 404 km is channeled in the river Orinoco, in the tract Boca Grande-Ciudad Guayana, and 665 km in the tract Ciudad Guayana-Puerto Gumilla. In the river San Juan 70 km is channeled between Caripito and the gulf of it Gave birth to. Among the navigable roads not channeled they highlight great part of the course of the Orinoco and the rivers it Hurries, Arauca, Goal, Barima, Portuguese, Capanaparo, Ventuari-Manapiare and Zulia-Catatumbo, among others.

NATURAL RESOURCES 

Petroleum 
The potential of hydrocarbons is so high that if the reservations were used as only energy source to supply the internal consumption, would have a 150 year-old duration, considering that the consumption averages yearly of that lapse was double the current one. The proven reservations of petroleum overcome the 64 000 million barrels. Venezuela is the sixth country with bigger reservations proven in the world. The current production is located in 
about 2 700 000 daily barrels, occupying the seventh place like world producer. One of the biggest reservations of heavy and extra heavy petroleum is in the bituminous strip of the Orinoco, with 51% of the world total. The one in charge of gerenciar and to administer the oil resources is the State through Petroleums of Venezuela (PDVSA). 

Natural gas 
Natural, associate enormous reservations of gas exist and not associated with locations of raw petroleum. They have been new reservations in the northeastern region, so much in the continent as coast out that make to already ascend those proven to 3,9 trillion cubic meters of natural gas. This locates Venezuela in the seventh place at world level. 

Coal 
There are considerable proven reservations and without proving of mineral coal, and the production goes in increase thanks to the internal and external demands. Those derived of the coal, coke and tar they are used in the miner-industrial complexes. The carboniferous energy can be used in the industrial sector, replacing partially to the petroleum. 

Resource hídrico 
Abundance of this resource exists. Annually there are about 700 million cubic meters of superficial waters and 22 000 million cubic meters of underground waters, being able to take advantage of 68% of the total of the superficial waters potentially. Near 85% of the total glide it corresponds to the territory located to the south of the Orinoco. 

Hydroelectricity 
The potentialities of hydroelectric resources have been estimated in 83 430 MW, equivalent to 2 500,00 daily barrels of petroleum. The mobilization is carried out through the plants summoned in the region of Guayana and of you Walk them. Their execution is competition of the Anonymous Company of Administration and Electric Development and the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana. 

Floor 
They exist more than 34 types of different agricultural vocation. They go from alluvial regosoles and grumosoles of high agricultural value; to renzinas, planosoles, gley little húmicos, of half agricultural value; until floors lateríticos of low quality and productivity. 
The lands of high potential are limited, while the floors of intermediate productivity are the most abundant. 

Mineral and non minerals 
The minerals, so much metallic as not metallic, they pass of 150. Those of more importance are: iron, bauxite, gold, diamond, phosphate, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, common salt, plaster and limestone. Big proven reservations of iron and bauxite exist. The auriferous locations and diamantíferos are located in Guayana, where the biggest production in the mining is of free use. The reservations of these minerals represent 12% of the reservations 
proven worldwide. 

Flora 
A varied vegetation exists, characterized by a complex mosaic of units florística-fisionómicas, where they are distinguished more than 150 types of vegetation. More than 50% of the territory it is covered with forests. However, the timber industry is highly dependent, with a great wooden import and pulp. 

The differences paisajísticas, climatic and topographical of the regions of Venezuela they give origin to an enormous vegetable variety. In the cloudy forests of the mountain ranges of the Costa and of you Walk them, as well as in the serranías, it highlights the presence of sweet cedar, jarillo or apamate that are trees maderables, besides the presence of several species of palms (sees you Palmáceas) and orchids like the catleya, national flower. In the pluvisilvas of the south of Venezuela they are trees of until 40 m of height, as the ceiba and the yagrumo, and numerous endemic species of epifitas. The araguaney or tree of yellow Ipé is the national tree of Venezuela. The arboreal vegetation of the forest piedemontana of the states of Barinas and Hurry it is rich in species like yokel, granadilla, mahogany and will see, among others. It is important to point out that so far they are located in Venezuela more than 300 species arboreal maderables. In The low Plains and means the vegetation is characterized by pastizales and formations of palms moriche associated to the courses of water. In the deltaic areas of the Orinoco and in the coastal lagoons of the states of Zulia and Falcon extensive formations of white and red mangrove are located. Other important species of the country are the yame or cardón and the white guácimo.

Fauna 
It has one of the most varied biotas in the world. There are around 200 species of reptiles, birds and profitable mammals for different uses. The marine and submarine areas are abundant in alive resources (fish, shellfish and avifauna) of great value, being the industry of the very active fishing, so much to supply the national market as for the export. 

The fauna is diverse and abundant with presence of characteristic mammals of the tropical area, as the bear anthill, bear frontino, lazy, armadillo, ocelot, jaguar, puma, deer matacán, chigüire (sees you Capibara), danta, otter or dog of water and diverse species of small simians. Venezuela is one of the countries with more variety of species of birds, among which highlight the macaws, toucans, guácharos, turpiales (national bird), paujíes or paujiles, corocoros or flamingos and a great variety of blue and parrots. The reptiles are numerous and they are from the cayman of the Orinoco until five species different from turtles and snakes like the anaconda, constrictor boa, bell (sees you bell Snake) and many others. In 2001 66 species existed in danger.

Fear environmental

Venezuela protects 36,3% (1997) of its territory, being the biggest percentage in the countries of America. The neighbors from Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil and Guyana only protect 9%, 4,2% and 0,30%, respectively. In spite of these measures protectives, Venezuela is losing part of its valuable tropical forests. Between 1990 and 1995, they were eliminated more than 2,5 million hectares. Also, the degradation of the floor in the prairies of The Plains, derived of several years of sobrepastoreo, has become a serious problem.

Venezuela is very industrialized, since 36,4% (2000) of its gross interior product (GDP) it comes from the industry. One of the main resources of the country is the petroleum. Those poured occasional of petroleum they have caused the death of fish and the closing of some coastal urbanizations in the lake of Maracaibo. The industrial contamination also affects to the coast of the sea Caribbean, where most of the population lives.

The lack of facilities for the treatment of residual waters has also contributed to the contamination of the coast of the sea Caribbean. In the urban areas, only 71% (2000) of the population has access to appropriate sanitary facilities; in the rural areas, the low figure to 48%. The contamination of the air is another problem of the urban centers as Caracas, Maracaibo and Valencia.

Venezuela is part of relative international treaties to biodiversity, climatic change, species in extinction danger, conservation of the marine life, naval contamination, tropical forests and humedales.

Population 

The society is conformed ethnically by a population mestizo (Indian, black and white), to which was integrated during the last century a European immigration (Portuguese and Italian). In the decade of the sixty a contingent of immigrants coming from Latin America arrived. The population from Venezuela, according to the XII General Census of  Population and Housing 1990, belongs to 18 105 265 inhabitants. It exists more than half million of foreign residents. The populational density is of 20,1 hab/km2, lightly inferior to that of Latin America. The highest populational density has it the Federal District with 1 090 hab/km2, followed by Miranda, Aragua and Carabobo. The country has presented a high index of growth, ending up triplicating its population among 1950-81. However, in the 
last period intercensal the lowest absolute growth was presented, relative and it appraises yearly, originated by the economic crisis that began in the eighty. Venezuela passed of being a rural country to a highly urbanized nation, with 87% of the population residenciada in urban areas, with Caracas, Maracaibo, Maracay, Valencia and Barquisimeto like the main cities. 

Education

The education in Venezuela is gratuitous and obligatory between the 6 and the 15 years of age; also, the State guarantees the gratuidad of the secondary public teaching and university student. The evolution of the literacy has been growing and specially quick during the period 1950-2001; the literacy rate in the inhabitants of more than 10 years it passed of 51,2% in 1950 to 98,1% in 2001. In 1994 695.320 children registered in education preescolar, assisted in 8.703 centers by a total of 42.267 educational and auxiliary professors. The 15.984 schools of basic or primary education registered an inscription of 4.262.221 students in 1996, with an insole of 185.748 teachers. In a total of 1.774 centers of secondary, diversified education and professional, 377.984 students and 37.791 professors registered. A total of 594.344 students was inscribed in more than a hundred institutions of superior education, in national and private universities, pedagogic, polytechnic and military institutions, with an educational personnel of 49.760 and investigators.

Among the most important universities they highlight the Central University of Venezuela (1725), the Catholic University Beautiful Andrés (1953), the Metropolitan University (1970) and the Universidad Simón Bolívar (1970) in Caracas; the University of you Walk them (1810) in Merida; the University of Zulia (1891) in Maracaibo; the University of Carabobo (1892) in Valencia; the University of East (1958) with headquarters in Cumaná and delegations in diverse cities of the region, and the University Western Center Lisandro Alvarado (1962) in Barquisimeto. has had a positive result the installation from 1975 of the Program of Scholarships Great Marshal of Ayacucho that it contemplates a complementary formation of the professionals abroad. See you Education in Venezuela.

Culture

The evolutionary process of the culture Venezuelan contemporary derives of the prehispanic, Hispanic and African roots, consolidated in the colonial centuries. The cultural specificity has been achieved with an intense transculturación process and miscegenation. To a contrasted cultural legacy of diverse indigenous ethnoses (sees you Art and before Columbus architecture) with their art rupestre, cestería, pottery and a rich oral tradition (especially in the Andean regions, in the mountainous areas of the coast, the savannas of The Plains and the amazon forests), the extraordinary linguistic, architectural contribution was added, of ornamental arts, painting, goldwork and the conquerors' furniture and Spanish settlers, natives in its majority of Andalusia, Castile and Extremadura. It was tinged it with significant taxes in music, pictorial arts and sense of the magic thing of old African cultures. also got rich for other cultural currents of Antillean and European origin in the XIX century, especially of French origin.

A discreet architecture of Hispanic origin (sees you colonial Architecture) it can be contemplated in the remains of the fortifications and old helmets in The Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Cumaná, Maracaibo or Araya. Of special importance it is the group of admirable colonial large houses in the city of Choir and the headquarters of the Compañía Guipuzcoana in The Guaira and Puerto Cabello. There is, also, outstanding old temples in The Asunción, in Caracas (sees you Cathedral of Caracas) and in chorus, with manifestations dieciochescas in the temples of Píritu, Guanare, Prison and other cities. They are interesting the remains of colonial country properties in the peninsula of Paraguaná and in the valleys of Aragua and of you Walk them. Of the XIX century country properties are conserved with big patios to dry coffee and cocoa, so much in the Andean states as in the northeast of the country. Modest manifestations of architecture urban decimonónica can be contemplated in Caracas, Macuto, Maracaibo, Barquisimeto and other urban nuclei.

In the oil regions of Venezuela they entered cultural manifestations of American origin and of the new immigration of Spanish, Italian origin and Portuguese. The combination of high economic revenues and the strong knots with the exterior incentivated the development of a modern architecture of high quality, being reached the biggest expressions with Carlos Raúl Villanueva that projected several buildings of the university city of Caracas and the Museum Jesus Grove of Ciudad Bolívar, among other works, and Fruit Lives. They also highlight the Teatro Teresa Carreño, the Central park, the center Simón Bolívar and diverse spectacular towers that expressed the oil peacefulness, especially in the center and east of the capital.

A Venezuelan characteristic contribution to the popular legend is the llanero or cattleman of the savannas of The Plains. The national dance, the joropo, and their respective popular instruments, such as the four, the harp and the maracas, they associate to the ways of life of the llanero. Equally, in the central Coast the African influence is reflected in the dances accompanied by drum and other instruments of African origin. Between the Venezuelan musicians of popular music and folclórica they have highlighted Soledad Well done, Simón Díaz or the Guianese Serenade, to mention some. In the section of classic music they are remarkable José Ángel you Lick, representative of the Venezuelan classicism, Cayetano Carreño, composer of religious music during the colony, and their granddaughter María Teresa Carreño, besides José Antonio Abreu, Modest Bor or Sebastián Díaz Peña.

In the literature section it is necessary to mention to one of the most outstanding men of letters in the Spanish America of their time, the poet, humanist and philologist Beautiful Andrés, besides the romantic Antonio Pérez Bonalde and the novelists of our century, Galician Rómulo and Arturo Uslar Pietri. See you also Venezuelan Literature.

Museums

They exist, approximately, 140 museums in the whole country. The main ones are located in Caracas. They highlight the Liberator's Native House (1921), with decoration mural of the painting Tito Salas; the Museo Bolivariano (1911), with exhibition of relating objects to the life and Simón Bolivar's time; the Museum of fine arts (1938), the Museum of Natural Sciences (1940) and the Gallery of National Art (1976) in the park The Caobos; the Museum of Contemporary Art Sofía Imber from Caracas (1974), and the Museum of Colonial Art (1961) in the Fifth of Anauco. They are also of great interest the Museum of Modern Art Jesús Soto (1973) and the Museo Etnográfico in Ciudad Bolívar; the Archaeological Museum of Quíbor (1965); the Diocesan Museum Lucas Guillermo Castillo (1982) in chorus; the Museum of Barquisimeto (1982); the Museum of History and Art (1960) at Home of the Celis in Valencia; the Museum and Center of History of Trujillo and the Museum of Art Popular Salvador Valero (1976) in this same city.

HISTORY

The Venezuelan man has an existence of approximately 15 centuries, like want that the history of Venezuela doesn't begin with the arrival of Christopher Columbus ships, but with the I root slowly of the call Homo venezuelanensis that has come evolving, in the first years, and then rolling and definitively incorporate to the progress and the western civilization starting from the miscegenation.

The Venezuelan man, just as breathes, lives, it feels and it acts in our days, one comes forming from the XVI century. People of this century, with the development of the political, economic, administrative and cultural institutions, transplanted of Spain, and with the application, in certain way, of the Illustration, prepared the men and women of the XIX century that well could call you the century of gold of Venezuela.

Prehispanic time

The American man's origin has been discussed during centuries. Discarded by the scientists the Florentine Argentinean paleontologist's theory Ameghino that followed the idea that the man -the universal man - was native from America, him more guessed right it is to speak of a multiple poblamiento. The man arrived to these lands from far, in successive waves, until settling definitively.

Specifically in Venezuela, the man's appearance dates of about 15.000 years ago. In the state of Falcon they were already remains of animals missing, as mastodons, megaterios (sees you Megatherium) or gliptodóntidos (sees you Glyptodon). about 6.000 years Ago the recolectores of marine shells appeared in occident that then would pass to east.

The indigenous families

Obviously, before Columbus's arrival a social organization already existed among the Venezuelan natives; therefore, in the measure in that the communities achieved an ethnic-cultural unit, the process of formation of the Venezuelan nation began.

From the point of view of the linguistic grouping, the etnólogo Miguel Acosta Saignes distinguished 10 areas that here summary: area of the coast caribe, from it Gave birth to until Borburata, understands three subáreas: of the cumanagotos, the fences and the caracas; area of the ciparicotos that appear like an inclusion among towns caquetíos; area of the western arawakos, understands the caquetíos (states of Falcon, Lara and Yaracuy, and the plains of it Hurries); area of the jirajaras, understands to the jirajaras, ayamanes, axaguas and gayones; area of The Peasant and of the lake of Maracaibo, in which you/they only appeared groups of hunter-recolectores and fishermen in the XVI century; area of the western caribeses, understands to the pemones, bobures and motilones; area of you Walk them Venezuelans, understands to the timoto-cuicas; area of the recolectores, includes to the current guaraúnos of the delta of the Orinoco and those hunter-recolectores and fishermen of The Plains until the states of Portuguese and Lara; area of the otomacos, includes to the otomacos, guamos, taparitas and yaruros; area of Guayana, includes the whole territory to the south of the Orinoco.

Although the Venezuelan natives didn't work the metals like in other regions, on the other hand yes they highlighted in the agriculture, particularly the Andean ones that cultivated with success the potato (potato), the corn, the yucca and other fruits that immediately were assimilated by the European gastronomy.

According to the census of 1990, the indigenous population belonged to 314.772 individuals distributed in 25 ethnoses, of those which the wayúu (peasants) you/he/she is the most numerous.

The name of Venezuela

1498 Christopher Columbus August 3 discovered the Venezuelan mainland, for the coast of it Gave birth to, to which called Earth of Grace". it was their third trip, in which used to arrive until here three caravels: Castile, Mail and Vachina or Vaquiña.

To the height of the delta of the Orinoco observed a great river that impressed him. Columbus wrote in his Newspaper of on board that felt that immense sea of sweet water ...con a to roar very big ...que today in day I am afraid in the body...". it was, undoubtedly, of the river Orinoco.

Columbus found indigenous extremely peaceful that, in a principle, they received the Europeans with samples of sympathy. But it was Alonso of Ojeda who for the first time it explored the contours of Venezuela and discovered the lake of Maracaibo August 24 1499. With Ojeda Américo Vespucio, Juan of the Thing and the geographer Martín Fernández of Enciso went.

It has been said repeated times that Americo Vespucci, Italian, associated the palafitos of the lake of Maracaibo with the houses on the water in Venice, and for that reason Venezuela called (small Venice") to the territory.

On the other hand, Fernández of Enciso, present witness of the discovery, in their work Summa of Geography, published in 1519, explains: " ...cerca of the earth is above a big stone that is flat della. And della a place or houses of Indians that calls himself Veneciuela is above...". this way, the name of Venezuela is autochthonous and not a Venetian diminutive.

The independence

Among the movements preindependentistas that took place at the end of the XVIII century, the most important were those of Manuel Gual and José María España, as well as the intents of Francisco of Miranda.

The conspiracy of Gual and Spain had the participation of all the classes of the colonial society; the first movement that had popular roots was. July 13 1797 you owes it.

Francisco of Miranda, on the other hand, attempted twice in 1806 to invade the Venezuelan territory originally with an armed expedition in the jetties of New York. Their incursions finished in failure for the religious prédica in its against and the population's indifference.

The date of April 19 1810 marked the beginning of the Venezuelan revolution; Vicente Emparán was deprived of his governor position and general captain from Venezuela. The first Congress settled March 2 1811 and it named a compound triumvirate for Cristóbal Mendoza, Juan it Staggers and Baltasar Padrón. But this first republic perished for the reaction of the realists. July of 1812 Miranda 25 surrendered. See you also Emancipation of Latin America.

The republic of Bolivar

Simón Bolívar that was in the exile in New Granada, Venezuela invaded for San Antonio of Táchira and in the denominated admirable Campaign Caracas conquered (August 6 1813).

The Spanish José's brutal presence Tomás Rodríguez Boves in the war, to the front of the realistic troops, put an end to the effort patriot to sustain the established government and the reformations that had begun. In December of 1814 got lost the II Republic and the patriots you exiliaron again.

Of this second exile the Letter of Jamaica arises (September 6 1815), I document prophetic of Simón Bolívar. In 1816 it was ratified as supreme boss of the Republic and carried out the expedition of the Keys to return again to Venezuela. The year of 1817 was that of statement of the Republic, when being given San Félix's battle, with the one that the general Manuel to Tweet conquered Narrowness.

The creation of Colombia

February 15 1819 settled the Congress of Narrowness with a medullary speech of Bolivar who also presented in that act the project of a Constitution based on the purest principles of freedom and republican morals.

Organized the government in Narrowness, Bolivar came out in search of the freedom of New Granada. headed to The Plains, it crossed the you Walk and, surprising the realists in the battle of Boyacá (August 7 1819), it liberated New Granada. The armies granadino and Venezuelan became unified, and for the first time Spain saw to Venezuela like a constituted country and it recognized the war like international.

In November of 1820 Simón Bolívar and Pablo Morillo they signed in Santa Ana of Trujillo an armistice for six months and a treaty of regularización of the war. Broken the armistice for the incorporation of Maracaibo to the independence, the war was renewed that finished June 24 1821 with the battle of Carabobo.

Period of transition

From 1811 up to 1999, Venezuela has had 35 presidents, without counting the numerous ones in charge of the executive power, neither those that have presided over government's meetings, like it is the case of Thin Carlos Chalbaud (1948-1950), Germán Suárez Flamerich (1950-1952), Wolfgang Larrazábal (January 23 at November 13 1958) and Edgar Sanabria (November 13 of 1958 at February 13 1959).

The first president from Venezuela was Cristóbal Mendoza who headed a triumvirate March 6 1811. They continued him in shift Baltasar Padrón and Juan of it Staggers. This initial republican government finished his functions March 24 1812. The II triumvirate entered in government's functions the same one March 24 1812 and was dissolved July of that year 25, when surrendering Francisco of Miranda.

Of February 15 at December of 1819, 17 Simón Bolívar was chosen by the Congress of Narrowness president from Venezuela. Starting from December 17 1819 and up to 1830, Venezuela was part of the Republic of Colombia (sees you Republic of the Great Colombia), of which Bolivar was also the president.

The creation of the Venezuelan State

At the end of 1829 you the feeling separatist generalized that the following year you/he/she was consummated. Venezuela became independent republic. In the same year of 1830 the Constitution was signed. The new Venezuelan State had José Antonio Páez like first magistrate. Páez governed during two constitutional periods (of March 24 of 1830 at February 6 1835 and from February 1 of 1839 at January 28 1843). Later on a dictatorship that lasted of September 10 from 1861 to June 15 1863 settled down.

José María Vargas substituted Páez and it governed from February 9 1835 until his renouncement, April of the following year 24.

Carlos Soublette was president for second time from January 28 1843 up to March of 1847, 1 it dates in that assumed the presidency José Tadeo Monagas who governed up to January 20 1851; the government presided over from January 31 1855 up to March of 1858, 15 again it dates in the one that Julián Castro overthrew it; still Monagas, already octogenarian, came closer once again to the power, thanks to the blue revolution", starting from June 25 1868. The Congress named Monagas for a new period, but this died November 18 before taking possession. José Gregorio Monagas that governed from February 5 1851 up to January of 1855, 20 completed the hegemony.

Julián Castro arrived to the power for a coup in March of 1858, but August 1 1859 were overthrown. Manuel Felipe of Tovar was the first elected president for direct universal vote and I secrete (April 12 1860), but it gave up the power May 20 1861. It provisionally assumed the presidency Pedro Gual, up to August of 1861, 29 in that the government began in fact of Páez. The president of the federation was Juan Crisóstomo Falcón; it completed two periods like provisional president first (June 17 at December 24 1863); ratified, it assumed the power January 21 1864; then, it developed their constitutional period starting from June 7 1865 until April 28 1868 the blue revolution ended up to substitute him.

Antonio Guzmán Blanco governed a septennium first (of April 27 of 1870 at February 20 1877); later a five year period (April 27 of 1879 at March 27 1884); in a third period, call the Acclamation", it governed again, although in an incomplete way, from September 14 1886 up to August of 1887, 8 year in that it went to Paris.

Francisco Linares Alcántara governed from March 2 1877 until the day of his death, November 30 1878. Frizzy Joaquín had a biennium first (April 27 of 1884 at April 27 1886); later, to the front of the legalistic revolution, it governed from 1893 to February 20 1898.

Juan Red Pablo Paúl also occupied the presidency during a biennium (July 5 of 1888 at March 19 1890); that same day Raimundo Andueza Palacio was appropriated and it governed up to June 17 1892. Ignacio Andrade didn't govern the time that corresponded him legally, but only from February 20 1898 until his overthrow, October of the following year 19.

The XX century

Cipriano Castro entered to govern October 23 1899 and stayed in the power up to November of 1908, 24 when it traveled to the foreigner in search of medical attention; left the position to their godfather Juan Vicente Gómez who took possession of the government until their death, December 17 1935. During the command gomecista, besides several in charge of the presidency, there was a constitutional president, John the Baptist Pérez (May 30 of 1929 at June 13 1931).

Eleazar López Contreras began another era, the one denominated of the new democracy". Took possession of the position December of 1935, 18 the following day of the death of Gómez, and was elected constitutional president for the Congress June 30 1936; it finished their command May 5 1941. The same day took possession Isaías Medina Angarita and it governed until it was overthrown October of 1945, 18 when it assumed the power government's Revolutionary Meeting presided over by Rómulo Betancourt.

February 15 1948 made their oath the writer and political Galician Rómulo I will Fry who didn't end up completing their period due to the coup of November of that year 24, in which was made with the control of the country a military Meeting. Marcos Pérez Jiménez, member of that Meeting and minister of Defense, didn't recognize the results of the elections of 1952 and assumed being able to dictatorially from 1953 up to January of 1958, 23 it dates in that was overthrown.

A new Meeting governed in this period, presided over by Wolfgang Larrazábal who gave up November 13 1958 and it was substituted by Edgar Sanabria.

The new constitutional president was Rómulo Betancourt (February 13 of 1959 at March 11 1964). In this last date she took oath Raúl Leoni and you/he/she exercised the power up to March of 1969, 11 when you/he/she passed over the presidential band to Rafael Caldera; this presided over up to March 12 1974. Their successor was Carlos Andrés Pérez whose presidential period finished March 12 1979 and that of Luis Herrera Campins began. For reformation of the Constitution, Herrera concluded February of 1984, 2 when Jaime Lusinchi's government began. Next, Carlos Andrés Pérez is again elected during the elections of December of 1988. Its turn to the presidency starting from 1989 generated a period of great political uncertainty, because two intentonas took place suddenly of State in 1992 (February 4 and November 27); its command should culminate in February of 1994, but it was interrupted.

The period of president's Carlos Andrés Pérez command decreased considerably, because the first trial took place in the Venezuelan history to a president in exercise.

March of 1993, 12 while president Pérez presented before the National Congress her annual message, the general district attorney of the Republic, Ramón Escovar Salom, surprised with the introduction before the Supreme Court of Justice of a demand against Pérez for graft and graft of secret departures.

The Court met May 20 1993 and declared that yes there were indications to prosecute the president; in accordance with the Constitution, Carlos Andrés Pérez was suspended of his public functions and he took charge of the first magistracy the president of the Senate, Octavio Lepage, as long as the same Congress designated the person that would govern the country with character of interim until the finalización of the period that corresponded Pérez, in case the trial was not him favorable and the sentence took place before February 2 1994. The condemnatory sentence of the Court took place May of 1996, 30 without the graft added difficulty.

The interim president selected by the Congress was the senator for Democratic Action Ramón Velásquez who had the votes of AD and COPEI, more other minority parties; lent oath on Saturday 5 of June of 1993.

In the elections of 1993 obtained the presidency Rafael Caldera again, autoexcluido of COPEI, heading this time a new party, Convergence, and supported by other organizations like MA, PCV and MIN. Boiler took possession February 2 1994 for one period that should conclude to the five years.

While, Pérez that had completed his two year-old condemnation, announced his intention of returning to the political activity, that which was captured in March of 1997 with his foundation of a new party, the Movement of Opening and National Participation, composed by independent members and for dissident of Democratic Action.

In April of 1998 the Superior Tribunal of Safeguard of the Public Patrimony ordered Carlos Andrés Pérez detention under the accusation of undue enrichment when deviating public funds abroad to combined bank bills. Although this order didn't mean its entrance in prison, due to its advanced age, it hindered Pérez's election like senator for the state of Táchira in the elections legislatives foreseen for the month of October.

Chávez president

The elections legislativas was the prelude of the presidential ones, taken place in December. The winner was Hugo Chávez, the official that headed the intentona golpista of 1992, who knew how to agglutinate (with a message of nationalist court and populist) to a wide sector of the population dissatisfaction with the effective political system, characterized by the alternation of the two traditional parties, the growing corruption and the critical economic situation that it had originated enormous social inequalities and the emergence of wide bags of poverty.

The elect president that took possession of the position in February of 1999, had among her more immediate priorities the breakup of the Congress and the convocation of a Constituent Assembly that I/you/he/she proceeded to endow to the country of a new fundamental law.

In the elections to the Constituent Assembly, taken place in July of that year and that they registered a near abstention to 53%, the followers of Chávez (belonging to the Patriotic Pole) they achieved an amplísima majority that allowed them to occupy 120 of the 131 elect benches. The Venezuelan constitucionalismo was modified with the new Constitution impelled by Chávez, approved by the Assembly and ratified by means of the referendum that took place December of 1999, 15 with 71,9% of the emitted votes, although the participation didn't arrive to 46%. At the same time that the population went to vote in the plebiscite, some serious and harmful floods that produced considerable economic losses and thousands of dead began. The Constitution didn't only change the name of the country (that passed to call himself from its entrance in vigor República Bolivariana of Venezuela) but rather it reinforced the presidential power, among other significant measures, as the biggest state control in the economic activity or that of the media. Also, the new constitutional text proclaimed that its main objective was that of refundar the Republic to establish a democratic society, participativa and protagonistic, multiétnica and pluricultural in a State of justice, federal and decentralized". Eliminated the Senate, the power legislative passed to relapse in an only camera, the National Assembly, chosen by universal vote.

July of 2000, 30 by virtue of the new constitutional order, presidential elections and legislativas whose results supposed took place, respectively, the reelection of Chávez (that achieved more than 55% of the emitted votes) and the victory for absolute majority of their coalition, the Patriotic Pole. Chávez swore the position following August 19 and announced its decision of confronting a deep transformation of the economic and social structures of the country. For it, and in spite of enjoying majority in the camera, requested this again powers special legislatives. November 7 2000 the National Assembly approved the denominated Law of Qualification that authorized him to legislate for ordinance during one year in economic, social matters and of public administration.

This way, in November of the following year their government approved 49 ordinances law that you/they originated a strong movement of protests linked in a principle to the managerial sectors. This package legislative included, as more polemic, the Organic Law of Hydrocarbons (that it increased to 30% the exigible tribute to the external investors for the activities of oil extraction, and it fixed in 51% the minimum participation of the State in mixed societies of this strategic sector) and the Law of Lands and Agrarian Development (that facilitated the latifundios expropriation). Before this, the Federation of Cameras (Fedecámaras) of Trade and Production, seconded by the Confederation of Workers from Venezuela (CTV) and for the officials, it summoned a national unemployment of 12 hours that took place December 10 2001. During February of the following year, the samples of dissatisfaction with the government of Chávez extended to certain sectors of the Army, and some members of this estamento even requested openly the president's renouncement. The CTV summoned a new unemployment general for April of 2002, 9 that finally became in indefinite. The tension reached its maximum bench mark April 11, when, in the course of a manifestation in Caracas, 15 people died when going to the palace of Miraflores to request the resignation of Chávez. In the face of the violent repression, a group of generals made a public official statement announcing its intention of promoting the president's renouncement. To the resignation petitions Pedro Carmona and Carlos Ortega were added (respective presidents of Fedecámaras and CTV). The facts threw the day 12, ending in a coup: the general Lucas Rincón, boss of the armed forces, communicated that Chávez had given up (being arrested in the strong Tiuna and being later transferred The Orchila), as long as Carmona, at the request of the general Efraín Vásquez, assumed the presidency of the Republic, it dissolved the public powers and affirmed that in the term of one year they would take place elections legislativas and presidential. One day later the social sectors in favor of Chávez reacted, so much civilians (the denominated Círculos Bolivarianos) as military, propitiating in the following 24 hours the assumption of the presidency for Diosdado Cabello (vice-president of Chávez, to which had remained loyal), the resignation of Carmona and the return of Chávez to Caracas to resume the headquarters of the State.

But the tension continued growing and this way, in October of 2002, they were happened a great manifestation in Caracas of the opposition (contained in the Democratic Coordinating call that requested the celebration of elections), another of the forces chavistas supporting the president, a general unemployment of 12 hours (promoted by the Coordinator, the employer one and the CTV), and a public official statement of 14 military opponents being declared in disobedience. The CTV and Fedecámaras summoned starting from the following one December 2 a national civic unemployment" (the room against Chávez, this indefinite time) that even affected to Petroleums of Venezuela S. A. during that month (PDVSA), one of the fundamental pillars of the economy of the country, and that was prolonged during 63 days. In February of 2003, already concluded, Carlos Fernández and Carlos Ortega, respective presidents of Fedecámaras and CTV, they were imputed as presumed responsible for diverse crimes, among them betrayal to the homeland and civil rebellion.

The poblamiento and the first city

Cubagua was the first historical center where Spanish was integrated to the physical, hostile, sterile means and without water for the human consumption, but with the attractiveness of the riquísimas areas where oysters that produced the most beautiful pearls were plentiful.

The city of New Cádiz, been founded in this island, became strong from 1528, but its duration was ephemeral. For 1539 the hatcheries of pearls were dry and in 1541 the island was destroyed by a maremoto.

But the first Venezuelan city, constituted with town council, marries and strength, was Santa Cruz, in the lagoon of Cosinetas (peninsula of The Peasant). Alonso of Ojeda founded It in 1502, when assuming the government of Coquibacoa. Sacred Cruz hardly lasted some months. In the succession of Venezuelan cities they arise chronologically: Choir, been founded by Ambrosio Alfinger in 1527; Maracaibo, been founded as town in 1529, also for Alfinger, and I eat city in 1569 for Alonso Pacheco; The Tocuyo, in 1545 for Juan Pérez of Tolosa; Barquisimeto, in 1552 for Juan of Villegas; Valencia, in 1555 for Alonso Díaz Moreno; Trujillo, in 1557 for Diego García of Walls; Merida, in 1558 for Juan Rodríguez Suárez; San Cristobal, in 1561 for Juan Maldonado; Cumaná, in 1562 for brother Francisco Montesinos; Caracas, in 1567 for Diego of Losada; Carora, in 1569 for Juan of the Disk, and Saint I Took of Guayana, been founded in 1595 by Antonio of Berrío, and that in 1764 it was denominated Narrowness by their transfer to the narrowness of the Orinoco for the governor's Joaquín Moreno of Mendoza order, and starting from 1846 called himself Ciudad Bolívar.

The governments

In the territory of the current Venezuela, the first government that had validity, although ephemeral, Coquibacoa that was granted to Alonso of Ojeda was (June 10 1501). it Embraced from the end of the Candle (today in Colombia) until the end of Chichiriviche. Ojeda founded May 3 1502 the city of Santa Cruz.

The counties

Margarita was the first county created in Venezuela; Carlos V granted it May 18 from 1525 to Marcelo Villalobos who died in 1526 without having taken possession. Their daughter happened him, Aldonza Manrique who governed through her mother, Isabel Manrique. In 1593 this dynasty was interrupted.

The county of Venezuela was created March 27 1528. The first governor and general captain was the German Ambrosio Alfínger, representative of the Welser, who arrived to Choir in 1529 and it established the capital there. The limits of this county extended from the end of the Candle until Maracapana.

The county of Trinidad that belonged to Venezuela from 1498 up to 1797, you creó September 1 1591. Antonio of Berrío consolidated the government, October of 1595, 12 with the name of Trinidad-Guayana. San José of Oruña (founded May 19 1592) it was the capital of Trinidad.

The county of Guayana constituted the center of all the conquerors' attention that you/they looked for The Gilding. Guayana, together to Trinidad, formed government between 1591 and 1731, year in that it passed to depend on the county of Cumaná. In 1762 you creó the command of Guayana with government range. Separated from Bogotá, it passed to depend on Sacred Domingo's audience.

On the base of the first New Córdoba (February 1 1562), Felipe II creó the county of New Andalusia or Cumaná; Diego Fernández of Serpa was its first governor, which founded it including the territories of the current states Anzoátegui, Monagas and Sucre again (November 24 1569), and gave him the name of Cumaná. Until the year 1739 it depended on Sacred Domingo's audience and up to 1777 of Santafé of Bogotá.

The county of Maracaibo was constituted initially with the name of Screams Her when being added this way the territories of Merida, Táchira and Barinas to the corregimiento denominated; next, it was named governor and general captain to the trujillano Juan Pacheco Maldonado (November 3 1622). Little time later, Maracaibo separated the county of Venezuela and it was added that of The Scream-Merida (December 31 1676). The town council marabino recognized governor Jorge Madureira (May 13 1678) who it established the capital in Maracaibo and the county adopted this name.

Political and military unification

The general captaincy of Venezuela you creó March of 1528, 27 according to historian Guillermo Morón. For the Real Identification of September of 1777, 8 Carlos III separated the counties of Cumaná, Guayana and Maracaibo, as well as the islands of Trinidad and Margarita, of the viceroyalty and general captaincy of the New Kingdom of Granada (sees you Viceroyalty of New Granada), adding them in the governmental and military to the general captaincy of Venezuela. Also, Maracaibo and Guayana separated in the juridical of the audience of Santafé and they also passed to depend on Sacred Domingo. The territory was unified around oneself governor and general captain, oneself intendant and oneself audience.

TRADITIONS 

Music 
The musical traditions associate to different activities. Cooing songs exist and of beat to sleep to the children; songs of task during the works of pillar corn, to spur on, to milk, or to gather coffee; galerón and malagueña to accompany the cross wakes; Christmas gifts, carols and bagpipes in the Christmas rites; drum blows to celebrate San Juan or San Benito; and joropo, waltz, jest, meringue, pole, bambuco and gallant songs to have a good time and 
to dance. The musical goods vary from a region to another. The joropo is the form musical traditional Venezuelan. It is interpreted in the whole country and it possesses own attributes according to the region: joropo llanero, power station and oriental; although also in the region of Guayana, the center-western one and in you Walk them it is given with characteristic specific. Additionally it is necessary to mention the galerón in Lara, in east and in you Walk them. The pole in Falcon, Anzoátegui, Sucre and New Esparta. The iota in east. The malagueña in Monagas, Anzoátegui and in general in the Venezuelan east. The waltz in you Walk them and in center occident. The meringue in Caracas, Lara and Cumaná. The central fulía in Miranda, Federal District and Aragua; the oriental fulía in Anzoátegui, Monagas, New Esparta and Sucre. The polka in Lara, Barinas, Sucre, Trujillo, Táchira, Hurry and Bolivar. The bambuco in Táchira, Merida, Trujillo, Lara, Zulia, Federal District and Vargas. The furro bagpipe and of tambora in the Zulia. The calipso in Bolivar. And the tamunangue in Lara. 

Gastronomy 
Three plates define the unit of the Venezuelan cuisine: the round maize loaf and the pavilion that waste away the whole year, and the hallaca, heart of the navidad. The round maize loaf, made with the help of corn, is used as companion or I eat strong plate. The pavilion is the one registered national and it is compound for head meat, black caraotas, white rice and banana slice. The hallaca is a combination of a stew elaborated with diverse 
types of meats, olives, capers and different agreement dressings with the region that you/they stuff a mass of corn which is cooked wrapped in banana leaves. To supplement the national fan the sancochos they should be mentioned or boiled, and the casabe. 
A great variety of regional foods exists, with plates like: the pisca and the ajiceros in you Walk them. The head pisillos, chigüire or deer, as well as the hand cheese in the region of the Plains. The hen pelao and the merey nougat in Guayana. The rooster olleta in Lara and in Caracas. The prepared male goat in their most diverse forms in Falcon. The corbullón of mere in the Oriental Costa. The cachapas in the Central Region. And the mojito in coconut 
and the eggs chimbos in the Zulia. Not less important it is the presence of drinks, as the coffee and the chocolate; besides alcoholic drinks that have won fame in the world, as the rums, the beers and, more recently, the wines. 

Emblems on the national table
Pabellón: even tough this dish originated in Caracas, it is the national dish. The dish is made up of black beans; white rice; and fried, stuffed meat. If the pabellón is accompanied with fried plan-tains cut into slices, it is called "pabellón con baranda".

Cassava bread: this Venezuelan "bread" is today one of the most popular across the country. It is made with sour cassava, which undergoes a process of stuffing and pressing in a Sebucán to extract the yare (a mortal poison with a high amount of hydrocyanic acid).

Hallaca: is the typical Christmas dish. It varies according to the region where it is prepared. In Caracas, hallacas have more ingredients; in the Andes, they contain chickpeas and tomatoes without seeds; in the plains, they are similar to the ones prepared in Caracas but contain less ingredients. This traditional dish is made with corn-meal, several types of meat (beef, pork and chicken), and diverse ingredients that are used to season and decorate them. Everything is wrapped in plantain leaves.

Cachapa: it is a round omelet made with ground sweet corn, milk, sugar, and salt. A variation of this dish is cachapa de hoja, which is made with the same ingredients but is not cooked on a budare but wrapped in corn leaves (which is later boiled).

Mondongo: it is well known that Venezuelan mondongo is a version of Spanish callos or tripas. In the center of Venezuela as well as in other parts of the country, it is made with cows feet and, sometimes, with tripe. In the Eastern part of the country the dish is made with tripe, offal , and pieces of meat.Empanadas: they are very similar to bollos, but fried. Empanadas are made with cornmeal and can be stuf-fed with anything, from cheese to baby shark .

Popular parties Festividades 
Following a calendar marked by the Catholic calendar and the cycles of the sun, they are practiced numerous parties. They highlight, in December, the Lunatics and Locainas of the Day of the Innocent Saints (mainly in occident), as well as San Benito's Parties in the populations Afro-American from the Oriental Costa of the lake of Maracaibo and in 
Trujillo. In January, the Boy's Paradura, the Slope of the Kings and the Pilgrimage of the Shepherds, in you Walk them. In February, The Candlemas's Vassals in you Walk them, and the parties of Carnival, especially in The Callao, Guayana, Sucre and New Esparta. In May, the Wakes of Cruz taken place in the central region and in east. In June, the Dancing Devils for Corpus Christi and San Juan's Parties in the populations Afro-American of Yaracuy, Miranda, Aragua and Federal District, as well as the Tamunangue in Lara and San Pedro's Spree in Miranda. They highlight different manifestations of indigenous origin as the Dance of the Turas, carried out between June and October in Falcon and Lara, and the Mare Mare and the Akatombo in Anzoátegui. Other important celebrations are the Fairs 
and Parties of some cities, as the Fair of San Sebastián (January) in San Cristobal; the Fair of the Sun (February) in Merida; the Divine Shepherdess's Fair (January) in Lara, and the Fair of the Chinese (November) in Maracaibo. 

Craft 
As many forms of handmade production as regions exist there is in the country. The traditional techniques of pottery, tejeduría, esterería, cestería, carpentry, talabartería, handiworks and popular art have stayed unalterable. The hands of skillful artisans that transform the mud, the vegetable fiber or the wood make of Venezuela a nation of big 
artists without school, because in most of the cases the abilities have been transmitted thanks to the daily occupation. Guide it is known by their cestería and the production of cloth dolls, especially in Anzoátegui and Sucre. The Zulia highlights for the ethnos peasant's influence and wayú, with its fabrics of hammocks and its multicolored tapestries. 
The Andean states and Lara, for the sizes in wood of religious figures and civil eminent persons, as well as for the utilitarian and ornamental ceramic. The central region is characterized by the production of masks of Dancing Devils and for the elaboration of percussion instruments (drums of different types). The diverse indigenous ethnoses are 
known by its cestería, their sizes in wood of figures of animals, their hammocks, their masks and their ritual crowns. 

National Symbols 

National Ave The Turpial  (Icterus icterus) 
National Ave was declared May 23 1958. It is recognized by their colors yellow-orange in the whole body, except the head and the wings that are black with white parts. has a small blue stain around the eyes. lives in solitary or in even in warm places. 

National flower 
The Orchid Flower of May" (Cattleya mossiae) 
National Flower was declared May 23 1951. Their scientific name remembers to William Cattley who in 1818 it cultivated the first bulbs in England, through some species sent from Brazil. The botanical John Lindley who gave him his name was. In 1839 the Cattleya mossiae was found in Venezuela. 

National tree 
The Araguaney (Tabebuia chrysantha) 
National tree was declared May 29 1948. Their scientific name Tabebuia is of indigenous origin and Chrysantha is derived of the Greek words that mean voice of gold". it is known with the names of Acapro, Curarí, Araguán or Cañada, Yellow Flower and Puy. 

Tourism 
All, from the first visitor that Venezuela stepped (Christopher Columbus), until the last one that should be arriving at this time at some of our ports or airports, they have gotten in this earth an universe of indescribable marvels. All those that have decided to come closer to Venezuela have been attracted it by their natural beauties (that go beyond their wives). is it that this country is privileged, in what can another part of the world leave to the forest, to the plain, to the beach or the mountain in only question of hours? Many options exist to enjoy, great part of them protected under the figure of national parks and natural monuments to preserve this way the sources of water, the pure air, the vegetable lungs, the species in extinction danger and the indigenous ethnoses. 

 

Special
Since approximately ten years ago, word began to spreadabout Venezuela'sexcellent potential for adventure tourism, bird watching, and combination of tourism, nature, and health. Venezuela bird watching Venezuela with backpack and and  Health Tourism

Venezuela bird watching
It is no secret that Venezuela houses an extraordinary land of the most varied landscapes. But the wonders are not only limited to its flora. The country's fauna, particularly its bird life, is considered to be among the most attractive in the world, thus this is a very popular destination for local and foreign ornithologists, and even the most de-manding birdwatchers Between the Rio Grande, in Mexico, and to Alaska there are around 700 bird species. In Venezuela alone, this piece of land that opens its doors to the Caribbean, there are 1,346 species, that is twice as many as in North America and about 44% of all birds in South America. This fact gives us an idea of the richness of Venezuela's bird 
population and explains why bird watching is a hobby that is be-coming more and more popular in our country and abroad.

The most interesting thing for both experts and beginners is that they can travel from Venezuela's plains to the Andes in the same day and easily spot 300 species. From the Gran Sabana to Sucre, from the Andes to the Delta, almost all regions in Venezuela are a paradise for bird lovers. It is good to know that in Venezuela bird watching is well organi-
zed thanks to the initiatives of groups, people and institutions that encourage this activity.


 

 


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